Industrial Metabolism

The total use of materials and energy throughout an entire industrial process, such as manufacturing. This includes the source, transportation, use, reuse, recycling, and disposal of all industrial nutrients (materials) as well as the energy needed at each step.


Allenby, B. and Richards, D. (1994). Greening of Industrial Systems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from

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