RoHS Directive

The Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive is EU legislation that bans the sale of electrical and electronic products containing specific toxic contaminants: Lead, Mercury, Chromium, Cadmium, Brominated flame retardants (PBBs & PBDEs) in amounts exceeding set Maximum Concentration Values (MCV). Producers (manufacturers, sellers and resellers of own-brand equipment, and importers and exporters) must demonstrate compliance […]

Radical Resource Productivity

Obtaining the same or increased amount of utility or work from a product or process while using fewer resources, including energy, man-made materials, and natural resources such as air, water, or minerals. The Industrial Revolution sparked a radical increase in human productivity, which relied on a seemingly unlimited supply of natural resources. Similarly, a radical […]


Often called the fourth “R” (as in Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), Rot is the process of allowing natural materials to decompose (break down) due of natural chemical reactions or be aided by fungi, bacteria and insects. Rot can be considered a natural recycling process.

ROR (Rate of Return)

The return on an investment, usually in present value, after adjustment for inflation. Like ROI, rates of return are usually measured in purely economic terms but can also include the costs and benefits associated with human and natural capital to give an organization a broader and more sustainable understanding of an investment. An evolved definition […]

ROI (Return on Investment)

The profit or loss expected or resulting from an investment. Returns on investment are usually measured only in economic terms but can also include the costs and benefits associated with human and natural capital to give an organization a broader and more sustainable understanding of an investment. ROI = final value (projected) / initial value

Reverse Logistics

The process of collecting used products and materials from customers to be reused, recycled, or upcycled into other products. This process treats these materials as valuable industrial nutrients instead of disposed of as trash. This is the complement to the traditional supply chain and distribution system used to produce and deliver products to customers.

ROE (Return on Equity)

The amount of profit generated by an organization compared with the amount of money invested by shareholders. ROE is useful for comparing company profitability with others in the same industry. ROE = net income / average shareholder equity


Any form of capital available for use. In terms of manufacturing capital, any material or energy available for us in manufacturing, including industrial nutrients that used and recovered from manufacturing processes. In terms of natural capital, natural materials (including sunlight, air, and water) used in an organization or society’s operation or production. Humans also provide […]


Any material or energy that can be replenished in full without loss or degradation in quality.


The process of cleaning and repairing used products and parts to be used again for replacements.


Often, the most sustainable option is to reuse materials and objects already manufactured, either for their original or new purposes, rather than recycle them into other products. This decreases further energy and materials use in recreating them into a new form.


One of the most sustainable strategies is simply to reduce the amount of energy and materials we use and, thus, are required to be manufactured. This reduction has an exponential effect as it further reduces packaging, recycling, transportation, cleaning, disposal, and a host of other costs.


Recycling is the process of reclaiming materials from used products or materials from their manufacturing and using them in the manufacturing of new products. It is different from Reuse, where products are not destroyed and remanufactured but cleaned and repaired to be used again, also known as remanufacturing. Another strategy to use resources more efficiently […]